· personal pronouns · demonstrative pronouns · definite article · possessive pronouns · interrogative pronouns · indefinite pronouns ·
are the words for 'I', 'me', 'you', 'us', 'them' etc. As in english there is one form for each gender of the 3rd person pronoun, but there is no difference made between a masculine 'I' or 'you' and a feminine 'I' or 'you'.
The neutral and the plural forms are not really personal pronouns, but demonstrative ones, but the personal pronoun has borrowed these forms from the demonstrative pronoun sá, so þat can be both personal ('it') and demonstrative ('that').
1st and 2nd person
The pronouns of the 1st and 2nd person are the same as in most indo-european languages:
1st pers. sing. nom: < eka < ekan < egom/egô (< h1egh2o-) ; dat: < meR/miR < me+z/mi+z (accented and unaccented respectively) < me- ; ack: < mek/mik < me+k/mi+k (k from nom.) < me-
2nd pers. sing. nom: < þu/þû < þu/þû < tû ; dat: < þeR/þiR < þe+z/þi+z (accented and unaccented respectively) < te- ; ack: < þek/þik < þe+k/þi+k (k from 1st pers.) < me-
1st pers. dual. nom: wet/wit < wet/wit < wed- ; dat. och ack: < unkeR < un-k-ez (k from ack. sing. and -es from dat. sing.) < n-
2nd pers. dual. nom: < it < jit (i from 1st pers.) < jud- ; dat. and ack: after 1st pers.
1st pers. plur. nom: < wîR < wîz < wei-es ; dat. and ack: < uns < uns < n-s
2nd pers. plur. nom: < îR < jîz (î from 1st pers.)/jûz < jû-s ; dat. and ack: < iðweR (ð and loss of w through dissimilation) < wizwez < wis-wes
Of the 3rd person pronouns of the other germanic languages (Goth. is, OEng. hé etc.) there is only a rest remaining in the relative particle er (< *iz). ON. in stead uses the pronoun *jainaz (Goth. jáins, OHGerm. jenêr), whose j was lost (according to the sound laws) and replaced with an h (from the pronominal stem *hi-). All plural and neutral forms are borrowed from the demonstrative pronoun sá.
© Peter Pettersson